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Charles Fort: A Fortean Chronology, 1914.

The year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar.

January

  • January 6: "weather bitterly cold" - a naked man appeared, from nowhere that could be found out, in High Street, Chatham, England. (Books686)
  • January 10: Mexican Revolution, Pancho Villa's troops take Ojinaga in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.

 

February

  • February 2: Charles Chaplin makes his film debut in the comedy short Making a Living.
  • February 26: The HMHS Britannic, sister to the RMS Titanic, is launched at Harland & Wolff Shipyards in Belfast.

 

March

  • March 10: Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Velázquez' painting Rokeby Venus in London's National Gallery with a meat chopper.
  • March 16: The wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux shoots Gaston Calmette, the editor of Le Figaro, because he threatened to publish Caillaux's love letters to her during his previous marriage (she is later acquitted).
  • March 27: Belgian surgeon Albert Hustin makes the first successful non-direct blood transfusion, using anticoagulants.
  • March 29: Katherine Routledge and her husband arrive in Easter Island to make the first true study of it (they depart August 1915)

 

April

  • April 20: Colorado coalfield Massacre or Ludlow Massacre: The Colorado National Guard attacks a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners in Ludlow, killing 24 people.
  • April 21: 3,000 U.S. Marines land in Vera Cruz, Mexico.

 

May

  • May 9: J.T. Hearne becomes the first bowler to take 3,000 first-class wickets.
  • May 25: The United Kingdom's House of Commons passes Irish Home Rule.
  • May 29: The ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 1,012 lives are lost.

 

June

  • June 18: Mexican Revolution, The Constitutionals take San Luis Potosí; Venustiano Carranza demands Victoriano Huerta's surrender.
  • June 28: Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinates Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Duchess Sophie, in Sarajevo.
  • June 29:  Austria-Hungary, The Secretary of the Legation at Belgrade sends a dispatch to Vienna suggesting Serbian complicity in the crime of Sarajevo. Anti-Serb riots erupt in Sarajevo and throughout Bosnia generally.
  • June 29:  Chionya Gusyeva attempts and fails to assassinate Grigori Rasputin at his home town in Siberia.

 

July

  • July 9: The Emperor of Austria-Hungary receives the report of Austro-Hungarian investigation into the Sarajevo crime. The Times publishes an account of the Austro-Hungarian press campaign against the Serbians.
  • July 11: Baseball legend Babe Ruth makes his major league debut with the Red Sox.
  • July 12: Demonstrations in Ulster suggest civil war.
  • July 13: Reports surface of a projected Serbian attack upon the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade.
  • July 14: The Government of Ireland Amending Bill is passed by the House of Lords.
  • July 15: Mexican Revolution, Victoriano Huerta resigns and leaves for Colón.
  • July 19: Austria-Hungary – A press scare concerning an alleged "Greater Serbia" conspiracy occurs.
  • July 19: The King of England summons a conference to discuss the Irish Home Rule problem.
  • July 23: Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum.  
  • July 28: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia and its army bombards Belgrade.
  • July 28: Tsar Nicholas II of Russia orders a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary. Full mobilisation follows the next day.

 

August

  • August 1: Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica.
  • August 1: Germany declares war on Russia, following Russia's military mobilization in support of Serbia; Germany also begins mobilization.
  • August 1: New York Stock Exchange closed due to war in Europe, where nearly all stock exchanges were already closed.
  • August 2: German troops occupy Luxembourg in accordance with its Schlieffen Plan.  
  • August 2: At 7:00 PM (local time) Germany issues a 12-hour ultimatum to Belgium to allow German passage into France.
  • August 3: Germany declares war on Russia's ally France.
  • August 3: At 7:00 AM (local time) Belgium declines to accept Germany's ultimatum of August 2.
  • August 4: German troops invade neutral Belgium. Britain declares war on Germany for this violation of Belgian neutrality. This move effectively means a declaration of war by the whole British Commonwealth and Empire against Germany. The United States declares neutrality.
  • August 5: Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary.
  • August 5: German zeppelins drop bombs on Liège, killing 9 civilians.
  • August 5-16 – Battle of Liège, The German Army overruns and defeats the Belgians.
  • August 6: Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
  • August 12: Battle of Haelen: Belgian troops repulse the Germans.
  • August 13: Unknown objects are observed in the sky by G.W. Atkins of Elstree, Herts, England. (Books518)
  • August 15: The Panama Canal is inaugurated with the passage of the steamship S.S. Ancon.
  • August 15: Mexican Revolution, Venustiano Carranza's troops under general Alvaro Obregon enter Mexico City.
  • August 16: Unknown objects are observed in the sky by G.W. Atkins of Elstree, Herts, England. (Books518)
  • August 16-19: Battle of Cer, Serbian troops defeat the Austro-Hungarian armies, in the first Entente victory in World War I.
  • August 17-September 2: World War I, The Battle of Tannenberg begins between German and Russian forces.
  • August 17: Unknown objects are observed in the sky by G.W. Atkins of Elstree, Herts, England. (Books518)
  • August 20: World War I: German forces occupy Brussels.
  • August 23: Japan declares war on Germany.
  • August 26-27: Battle of Le Cateau: British, French and Belgian forces make a successful tactical retreat from the German advance.
  • August 26-30: The Russian Second Army is surrounded and defeated in the Battle of Tannenberg.
  • August 29-30: The Battle of St. Quentin: French forces hold back the German advance.

 

September

  • September 1: The last known passenger pigeon "Martha" dies in the Cincinnati Zoo.
  • September 5: World War I, First Battle of the Marne - Northeast of Paris, the French 6th Army under General Maunoury attacks German forces nearing Paris.
  • September 6: A French and British counterattack at the Marne ends the German advance on Paris.
  • September 9: A host in the sky above Engalnd, watched for several hours by W.H. Stevenson, who describes them as large bodies round in appearance, though some were shaped like dumbells. (Books518)
  • September 13: South African troops open hostilities in German South-West Africa with an assault on the Ramansdrift police station.

 

October

  • October 3: World War I, 33,000 Canadian troops depart for Europe, the largest force to ever cross the Atlantic Ocean at the time.
  • October 7: Joseph Patrick Kennedy Sr. marries Rose Fitzgerald in Boston.
  • October 9: World War I, Siege of Antwerp - Belgium falls to German troops.
  • October 10: An object, "an absolutely black, spindle-shaped object" is seen crossing the sun by Albert Buss at Manchester, England. (Books518)
  • October 28: World War I, Battle of Penang, Malaya - The German cruiser Emden sinks a Russian cruiser and French destroyer before escaping.
  • October 29: World War I, Ottoman warships shell Russian Black Sea ports; Russia, France, and Britain declare war on November 1-November 5.

 

November

  • November 1: World War I, Battle of Coronel - A Royal Navy squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock is met and defeated by superior German forces led by Vice-Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee.
  • November 5: The United Kingdom annexes Cyprus, and together with France declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
  • November 7: The Japanese seize Jiaozhou Bay in China, the base of the German East Asia Squadron.
  • November 16: World War I, The Battle of Kolubara begins - Serbian forces engaged by Austro-Hungarian forces.
  • November 23: U.S. troops withdraw from Veracruz. Venustiano Carranza's troops take over and Carranza makes the town his headquarters.
  • November 24: Benito Mussolini is expelled from the Italian Socialist Party.

 

December

  • December 12: The New York Stock Exchange re-opened, having been closed since 1 Aug 1914 except for bond trading.
  • December 12: The largest one-day percentage drop in the history of the Dow Jones Industrial Average 24.39%.
  • December 15: A gas explosion at the Mitsubishi Hojyo coal mine, Kyūshū, Japan, kills 687.
  • December 19: The Battle of Kolubara ends, resulting in a decisive Serbian victory over Austria-Hungary.